Wikipedia

For other uses, seeHome (disambiguation)Homes (disambiguation), andDomicile.

For the front page of the Wikipedia site, seeMain Page.

For the structure, seeHouse. For houses for animals, seeHabitat.

Ahome, ordomicile, is aliving spaceused as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual,familyhouseholdorseveral families in a tribe. It is often ahouseapartment, or otherbuilding, or alternatively amobile homehouseboatyurtor any other portable shelter. A principle ofconstitutional lawin many countries, related to theright to privacyenshrined in article 12 of theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights[1]is the inviolability of the home as an individualsplace of shelter and refuge.

Homes typically provide areas and facilities for sleeping, preparing food, eating and hygiene. Larger groups may live in anursing homechildrens homeconventor any similar institution. Ahomesteadalso includes agricultural land and facilities fordomesticated animals. Where more securedwellingsare not available, people may live in the informal and sometimes illegalshacksfound inslumsandshanty towns. More generally, home may be considered to be a geographic area, such as atownvillagesuburbcity, orcountry.

The earliest homes that humans inhabited were likely naturally occurring features such ascaves.

Throughout history, primitive peoples have made use of caves. The earliest humanfossilsfound in caves come from a series of caves near Krugersdorp and Mokopane in South Africa. The cave sites ofSterkfonteinSwartkransKromdraaiB,DrimolenMalapa, Coopers D, Gladysvale, Gondolin and Makapansgat have yielded a range of early human species dating back to between three and one million years ago, includingAustralopithecus africanusAustralopithecus sedibaandParanthropus robustus. However, it is not generally thought that these early humans were living in the caves, but that they were brought into the caves by carnivores that had killed them.

The first early hominid ever found in Africa, theTaung Childin 1924, was also thought for many years to come from a cave, where it had been deposited after being preyed upon by an eagle. However, this is now debated (Hopley et al., 2013; Am. J. Phys. Anthrop.). Caves do form in the dolomite of the Ghaap Plateau, including the Early, Middle and Later Stone Age site ofWonderwerk Cave; however, the caves that form along the escarpments edge, like that hypothesised for the Taung Child, are formed within a secondary limestone deposit calledtufa. There is numerous evidence for other early human species inhabiting caves from at least one million years ago in different parts of the world, includingHomo erectusin China atZhoukoudianHomo rhodesiensisin South Africa at the Cave of Hearths (Makapansgat),Homo neandertalensisandHomo heidelbergensisin Europe atArchaeological Site of AtapuercaHomo floresiensisin Indonesia, and theDenisovansin southern Siberia.

In southern Africa, early modern humans regularly used sea caves as shelter starting about 180,000 years ago when they learned to exploit the sea for the first time (Marean et al., 2007; Nature). The oldest known site is PP13B atPinnacle Point. This may have allowed rapid expansion of humans out of Africa and colonization of areas of the world such as Australia by 60-50,000 years ago. Throughout southern Africa, Australia, and Europe, early modern humans used caves and rock shelters as sites for rock art, such as those atGiants Castle. Caves such as theyaodongin China were used for shelter; other caves were used for burials (such asrock-cut tombs), or as religious sites (such asBuddhist caves). Among the known sacred caves are Chinas Cave of a Thousand Buddhas[2]and thesacred caves of Crete.

As technology progressed, humans and other hominids began constructing their own dwellings. Buildings such ashutsandlonghouseshave been used for living since the lateNeolithic.[3]

It is unknown when the first mansion was built because there is no way to know for sure, but it is believed to have origins as a type of palace during the Mesopotamian period.[4]

Ahouseis abuildingthat functions as a home forhumans[5]ranging from simpledwellingssuch as rudimentary huts ofnomadic tribesto complex, fixed structures of wood, brick, or other materials containing plumbing, ventilation and electrical systems.[6][7]Most conventional modern houses will at least contain abedroombathroomkitchenor cooking area, and aliving room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies,domestic animalssuch as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) may share part of the house with humans. The social unit that lives in a house is known as ahousehold. Most commonly, a household is afamilyunit of some kind, although households may also be othersocial groupsor individuals. The design and structure of homes is also subject to change as a consequence of globalization,urbanizationand other social, economic, demographic, and technological reasons. Various other cultural factors also influence the building style and patterns of domestic space.

Aterraced house[a]is a style ofmedium-density housingwhere a row of identical or mirror-image houses share side walls, whilesemi-detachedhousing consists of pairs of houses built side-by-side or (less commonly) back-to-back,[8]sharing aparty walland with mirrored layouts.

Anapartment(inAmerican English) or a flat (inBritish English) is a self-contained housing unit (a type of residentialreal estate) that occupies only part of abuilding. Such a building may be called anapartment building,apartment house(in American English),block of flats,tower block,high-riseor, occasionallymansion block(in British English), especially if it consists of many apartments forrent. In Scotland it is called a block of flats or if its a traditional sandstone building atenement, which has a pejorative connotation elsewhere. Apartments may be owned by anowner/occupierby leasehold tenure or rented bytenants(two types ofhousing tenure).

Ahomesteadconsists of adwelling, often afarm house, together with other buildings and associated land, and facilities fordomesticated animals.

A homes occupants may be a singleindividual, afamilyhousehold, orseveral families in a tribe. Occupants may be part of other groups, such as nursing home residents or children in an orphanage.

The financial arrangements under which someone has the right to live in a home are, most frequently,tenancy, in whichrentis paid by the tenant to alandlord, andowner-occupancy. Mixed forms of tenure are also possible.

Squatting is an action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or abuilding usually residential[9] that the squatter does notown, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use.

Article 25 of theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 contains the following text regarding housing and quality of living: Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services…[10]

In 2004, theUnited Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, defined a homelesshouseholdasthose households without a shelter that would fall within the scope of living quarters. They carry their few possessions with them, sleeping in the streets, in doorways or on piers, or in another space, on a more or less random basis.[11]

In 2009, at the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Conference of European Statisticians recommended that homeless people are classified in two broad groups (noting that this would not provide a complete definition):[12]

(a) Primary homelessness (or rooflessness). This category includes persons living in the streets without a shelter that would fall within the scope of living quarters.

(b) Secondary homelessness. This category may include persons with no place of usual residence who move frequently between various types of accommodations (including dwellings, shelters, and institutions for the homeless or other living quarters). This category includes persons living in private dwellings but reporting no usual address on their census form.

In 2005, 100 million people worldwide were estimated to behomeless,[13]although some prefer the term houseless or unsheltered.

A home is generally a place that is close to the heart of the owner, and can become a prized possession. It has been argued that psychologicallyThe strongest sense of home commonly coincides geographically with a dwelling. Usually, the sense of home attenuates as one moves away from that point, but it does not do so in a fixed or regular way.[14]Since it can be said that humans are generally creatures ofhabit, the state of a persons home has been known to physiologically influence theirbehavioremotions, and overallmental health.[15]People may becomehomesickwhen they leave their home over an extended period of time. Places like homes can trigger self-reflection, thoughts about who someone is or used to be or who they might become.[citation needed][16]These types of reflections also occur in places where there is a collective historical identity, such asGettysburgorGround Zero.[17]

Popularsayingsincludea mans home is his castle,[18]there is no place like home,home sweet home,to be at home,home away from home,make yourself at home,you can never go home again,[19]home is where the heart is[20]andhome is where you hang your hat.[21]

The wordhomecan be used for various types of residential communityinstitutionsin which people can live, such asnursingretirement homesfor seniors,foster homes, etc.[22]Short-term accommodation in a treatment facility for several weeks is unlikely to be considered home.

Homes may be lost in ways ranging from the upheavals ofnatural disasters,[23]fraud/theft,arson, or war-related destruction, to the more common voluntary sale, loss for one or more occupants on relationship breakdown,expropriationby government or legislated cause, repossession/foreclosureto pay secured debts,evictionby landlords, disposal by time-limited means lease, or absolute gift. Jurisdiction-dependent means of home loss includeadverse possession, unpaidproperty taxationand corruption such as in circumstances of afailed statePersonal insolvency, development or sustaining ofmental illnessor severe physical incapacity without affordabledomestic carecommonly lead to a change of home. The underlying character of a home may be debased bystructural defects, naturalsubsidenceneglectorsoil contaminationRefugeesfrom homes flee where such extreme forms of quasi-nuisance occur such asharassmentandreligious persecution, who may seek asheltered housingrefuge orplace of asylumrespectively.

List of countries by home ownership rate

United Nations Human Settlements Programme

also known as a terrace house (UK), townhouse (US), row houses or linked houses

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Sacred Places Around the World: 108 Destinations

What is the first mansion ever built on the entire globe?. Austin Bennett

American Shelter: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the American Home By Les Walker. Overlook Press, 1 July 1998

(rev. ed.) (New York: W.W. Norton & Company).

Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme

Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. United Nations. 10 December 1948.

United Nations Demographic Yearbook review: National reporting of household characteristics, living arrangements, and homeless householdsĀ : Implications for international recommendations

. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division, Demographic and Social Statistics Branch. 14 April 2004.

United Nations Economic and Social Council

. Economic Commission for Europe Conference of European Statisticians. 18 August 2009.

Terkenli, T. S. (1995). Home as a Region.

Boutruche, Samuel; Bourgeois, Stphanie; Lyamouri-Bajja, Nadine (2008).

Raising Young Refugees Voices in Europe and Beyond

Haywood, Trudy (27 July 2017).Homesickness Settling in to University.

Burton-Christie, Douglas (2009).Place-Making as Contemplative Practice.

Malik v Fassenfelt & Others[2013] EWCA Civ 798 (Court of Appeal of England and Wales) His Honour SirAlan Ward (judge)began the panels appellate judgment The idea that an Englishmans home is his castle is firmly embedded in English folklore and it finds its counterpart in the common law of the realm…

Idiom: Home is where you lay your hat

Teves, Hranjski, Oliver, Hrvoje (7 December 2012).Death toll from Philippine typhoon climbs past 500.

The dictionary definition ofhomeat Wiktionary

Quotations related toHomeat Wikiquote

Media related toHomeat Wikimedia Commons

Last edited on 6 July 2018, at 18:41

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